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Influence of Diet-Induced Obesity on the Bioavailability and Metabolism of Raspberry Ketone (4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-Butanone) in Mice

New article published in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research!


Objectives: Raspberry ketone (RK) is the primary aroma compound in red raspberries and a dietary supplement for weight loss. This work aims to 1) compare RK bioavailability in male versus female, normal-weight versus obese mice; 2) characterize RK metabolic pathways.

Methods: Study 1: C57BL/6J male and female mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) receive a single oral gavage dose of RK (200 mg kg-1 ). Blood, brain, and white adipose tissue (WAT) are collected over 12 h. Study 2: Male mice are fed a LFD or high-fat diet (45% fat) for 8 weeks before RK dosing. Samples collected are analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS for RK and its metabolites.

Results: RK is rapidly absorbed (Tmax ≈ 15 min), and bioconverted into diverse metabolites in mice. Total bioavailability (AUC0-12 h ) is slightly lower in females than males (566 vs 675 nmol mL-1 min-1 ). Total bioavailability in obese mice is almost doubled that of control mice (1197 vs 679 nmol mL-1 min-1 ), while peaking times and elimination half-lives are delayed. Higher levels of RK and major metabolites are found in WAT of the obese than normal-weight animals.

Conclusions: RK is highly bioavailable, rapidly metabolized, and exhibits significantly different pharmacokinetic behaviors between obese and control mice. Lipid-rich tissues, especially WAT, can be a direct target of RK.


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